1st Part

Grammar in use

  • Topic : Verbs
  • Skills : Grammar


What is a verb?
A verb is a part of speech that describes an action, occurrence, or state of being. It is often referred to as a “doing” word.
Verbs are essential components of sentences, and they convey the main action or state of the subject.
They can express physical actions (e.g., run, eat), mental actions (e.g., think, believe), emotional states (e.g., love, hate), or states of being (e.g., is, exist).

erbs can be conjugated to indicate tense (e.g., past, present, future), aspect (e.g., continuous, perfect), mood (e.g., indicative, subjunctive), and voice (e.g., active, passive). They can also be modified or combined with other words to form verb phrases.

“I am running” and “She will have eaten” are both examples of verb phrases.

In a sentence, a verb typically functions as the main predicate, conveying the action or state of the subject.

In the sentence “The dog barks,” the verb “barks” indicates the action being performed by the subject “dog.”

Present tense or the past tense

She sings beautifully.
We love to travel.
He worked late last night.
He spoke to her yesterday about the project.

Auxiliary verb be and main verb in the –ing form:

She is running in the park.
We are studying for the exam.
We were singing our favorite song together.
We were studying for the exam last night.

Auxiliary verb have and main verb in the past participle form:

She has finished her homework.
We have seen that movie before.
They have cooked a delicious meal.

Auxiliary verbs have and been and a main verb in the –ing form:

She has been studying for hours.
We have been practicing our presentation.
They have been playing soccer all day.

Modal verb and the auxiliaries be, have and have been:

We should have finished the project last week.
They must have been waiting for hours.
The children could have been playing in the park.
I will have been working for ten years next month.

Auxiliary verb be and a main verb in the past participle form:

I am impressed by your achievements.
The documents were printed and filed.
We are satisfied with the outcome.
She was chosen as the winner.

Types of verbs

Type of verbDescriptionExample
Action VerbsThese verbs describe physical or mental actions.“run,” “eat,” “think,” and “write.”
Linking VerbsLinking verbs connect the subject of a sentence with a noun, pronoun, or adjective that describes or renames it. They do not show action but rather express a state of being or condition.“be,” “become,” “seem,” and “appear.” For instance, in the sentence “She is a doctor,” the linking verb “is” connects the subject “she” with the noun “doctor.”
Auxiliary Verbs (also called Helping Verbs)These verbs work together with the main verb to create different verb forms, tenses, moods, and voices.“be,” “have,” and “do.” They are used to form various verb constructions like the progressive tense (e.g., “is running”), the perfect tense (e.g., “has eaten”), or questions (e.g., “Do you like ice cream?”).
Modal VerbsModal verbs express possibility, necessity, obligation, ability, or permission. They are used to modify the main verb in terms of mood or attitude.“can,” “may,” “must,” “should,” and “will.” For instance, “I can swim” indicates the ability to swim, while “You should go” implies a suggestion or advice.
Transitive verbsA transitive verb is a type of verb that requires a direct object to complete its meaning in a sentence. In other words, a transitive verb expresses an action that is done to someone or something, and that action needs an object to receive or undergo the action. The object of a transitive verb typically answers the question “what?” or “whom?” after the verb.She read a book.
(The verb “read” requires an object, which is “a book.”)
They ate dinner.
(The verb “ate” requires an object, which is “dinner.”)
He kicked the ball.
(The verb “kicked” requires an object, which is “the bal
Intransitive verbsAn intransitive verb is a type of verb that does not require a direct object to complete its meaning in a sentence. It expresses an action or a state of being that does not transfer to an object. Intransitive verbs are self-sufficient and do not need a direct object to make sense in a sentence.She danced gracefully.
(The verb “danced” does not require an object.)
They laughed loudly.
(The verb “laughed” does not require an object.)
He slept peacefully.
(The verb “slept” does not require an object.)
Regular verbsRegular verbs are a type of verb that follow a predictable pattern when forming their past tense and past participle forms. They typically add the suffix “-ed” or “-d” to the base form of the verb to create the past tense and past participle.walk | walked | walked
talk | talked | talked
play | played | played
jump | jumped | jumped
ask | asked | asked
Irregular verbsIrregular verbs are a type of verb that do not follow the regular pattern for forming the past tense and past participle forms. Instead, they have their own unique forms. These verbs often undergo changes in their vowel sounds or spelling to indicate the past tense or past participle.go | went | gone
eat | ate | eaten
see | saw | seen
come | came | come
take | took | taken
drive | drove | driven
Stative VerbsStative verbs, also known as state verbs or non-action verbs, refer to verbs that describe a state or condition rather than an action. These verbs express states of being, emotions, senses, thoughts, ownership, or qualities. They are typically not used in continuous or progressive, love, hate, believe, understand, know

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